Types of yarn & yarn counts

What is Yarn Count in Textile?
In textile industry, count is a numerical expression, which expresses the fineness or coarseness (Diameter) of the yarn. It also indicates the relationship between weight and length (Length per unit mass or mass per unit length or) of that yarn.

According to textile institute, yarn count is a number which indicates the length per unit mass of yarn or mass per unit length of yarn.

Different Types of Yarn Count in Textile:
There are mainly two types of yarn count. Those are-

  1. Indirect yarn count- Metric, Worsted, English.
  2. Direct yarn count- Denier, Tex, Pounds per spindle.

The above two types of yarn count are explained in the below:

1. Indirect Yarn Count:
Indirect yarn count expresses the number of length units in one weight unit. That is why, higher the count, finer the yarn. Indirect yarn count system is generally used for worsted, linen, cotton yarn.

2. Direct Yarn Count:
Direct yarn count expresses the number of weight units in one length unit. That is why, higher the count, coarser the yarn. Direct yarn count system is normally used for jute fiber, synthetic fibresilk fiber etc.

Another system is classified as third type of count and that is “Tex”. Tex is also called Universal count. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) fixed the relationship between weight and length for Tex. The greater the weight, the thicker the yarn and Tex will be greater number. We will discuss it under Direct system.
Direct System

In this system, the count of yarn expresses the no of weight units in one length unit. Higher the count, coarser the yarn. This system is generally used for Man made fibre, jute, silk etc.
Now, let’s see the how count is mathematically calculated.

Let,
N = The yarn number or count.
W = The weight of the sample.
w = The unit of weight of the system.
L = The length of the sample.
l = The unit of length of the system.
Now, Count, N = (W×l)/L

Indirect System

In this system, the count of yarn is expresses the no of length unit in one weight unit. Here, when count is higher, then yarn will be finer. The system is usually used for cotton, worsted, metric, french, linen (wet spun) etc.

Let,
N = The yarn number or count.
W = The weight of the sample.
w = The unit of weight of the system.
L = The length of the sample.
l = The unit of length of the system.
Now, Count, N = (L×w)/(l×W)

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